Annex A: User Engagement
Our review was based on desk research which we carried out ourselves, as well as through stakeholder engagement in the form of interviews, workshops and focus groups.
We spoke to users from a range of different backgrounds, including think tanks, research centres, academia, national and local government and charities.
|Action for Children|
|Centre for Social Justice|
|Child Poverty Action Group|
|City of London University|
|Department for Communities|
|End Child Poverty Coalition|
|End Furniture Poverty|
|Equalities and Human Rights Commission|
|Fair by Design|
|Greater London Authority|
|Inclusive Data Taskforce (ONS)|
|Institute for Fiscal Studies|
|Joseph Rowntree Foundation|
|Office for National Statistics Sustainable Development Goal Team|
|Oxford Institute for Social Policy|
|The Children’s Society|
|Trade Union Congress|
|University of Leeds|
Annex B: Statistics landscape
The following list encompasses the range of official statistics on income-based poverty:
|Dept for Communities NI||Northern Ireland Poverty Bulletin||National Statistics|
|DWP||Children in low-income families: local area statistics||Official Statistics|
|DWP||Income Dynamics||Official Statistics|
|DWP||Households Below Average Income||National Statistics|
|ONS||Average Household Income||National Statistics|
|ONS||Effects of taxes and benefits on UK households||National Statistics|
|ONS||Household income inequality||National Statistics|
|ONS||Persistent Poverty in the UK and EU||National Statistics|
|ONS||Working and workless households||National Statistics|
|Welsh Government||Relative Income Poverty (Wales)||National Statistics|
|Scottish Government||Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland||National Statistics|
We have also referred to a number of non-official statistics in this report, that make an important contribution to the landscape of poverty statistics concerning low income:
|Joseph Rowntree Foundation||Destitution in the UK|
|Joseph Rowntree Foundation||Minimum Income Standards|
|Social Metrics Commission||Measuring Poverty 2020|
|University of Essex||Understanding Society|
Annex C: Glossary
Absolute poverty: Living in a household with an income that is below a level that was the relative low-income threshold in 2010/11 adjusted for inflation. Reported both before and after housing costs.
Deep poverty: Whilst precise definitions differ, ‘deep poverty’ is generally used to refer to those living at the lowest end of the income distribution and experiencing the most severe levels of poverty.
Destitution: Going without the essentials we all need to eat, stay warm and dry, and keep clean.
Equivalisation: Standard methodology that adjusts household income to account for the different financial resource requirements of different household types, based on size and composition.
Family Resources Survey: Produced by DWP, the FRS is a continuous household survey which collects information on a representative sample of private households in the United Kingdom.
Households Below Average Income: Statistics on the number and percentage of people living in low-income households in the UK, based on data from the Family Resources Survey.
Household Finances Survey: New integrated ONS household finance survey, that combines the Living Costs and Food survey (LCF) and the Survey on Living Conditions (SLC). Surveys around 17,000 private households in the UK on a voluntary basis to ask them questions about their income.
Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Official measure of relative deprivation. People may be considered to be living in poverty if they lack the financial resources to meet their needs, whereas people can be regarded as deprived if they lack any kind of resources, not just income. The index is based on various indicators, organised across distinct domains of deprivation, which are combined and weighted. They are produced separately for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Living Costs and Food Survey: Collects information on spending patterns and the cost of living that reflect household budgets. It is conducted throughout the year, across the whole of the UK, by ONS.
Material Deprivation: The inability for individuals or households to access those consumption goods and activities that are typical in a society at a given point in time, irrespective of people’s preferences with respect to these items.
Persistent poverty: Defined by ONS as being in (relative income) poverty in the current year and at least two of the three preceding years. Defined by DWP as being in (relative income) poverty for at least three of the last four years.
Relative poverty: Defined as living in a household with an income that is low relative to others, as determined by whether the income is below 60 per cent of median income. Reported both before and after housing costs.Back to top